FACTS ABOUT INFECTIOUS DISEASES
Infectious diseases are caused by microscopic organisms that penetrate the body’s natural barriers and multiply to create symptoms that can range from mild to deadly. Although progress has been made to eradicate or control many infectious diseases, humankind remains vulnerable to a wide array of new and resurgent organisms.
Obstacles in Infection Treatment: New, potentially dangerous bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) emerge every year. Previously recognized pathogens can evolve to become resistant to available antibiotics and other treatments. Population crowding and easy travel also make us more vulnerable to the spread of infectious agents. Recent concerns about bioterrorism have focused new attention on eradicated or rare infectious diseases such as smallpox and anthrax.
Types of Infection: Some infections, such as measles, malaria, HIV and yellow fever, affect the entire body. Other infections affect only one organ or system of the body. The most frequent local infections, including the common cold, occur in the upper respiratory tract. A serious and usually local infection of the respiratory tract is tuberculosis, which is a problem worldwide. Other common sites of infection include the digestive tract, the lungs, the reproductive and urinary tracts, the eyes or ears. Local infections can cause serious illnesses if they affect vital organs such as the heart, brain or liver. They also can spread through the blood stream to cause widespread symptoms. The outcome of any infection depends on the virulence of infectious agents, the number of organisms in the infecting inoculum and the response of the immune system. A compromised immune system, which can result from diseases such as AIDS or treatment of diseases such as cancer, may allow organisms that are ordinarily harmless to proliferate and cause life-threatening illness.
Modes of Infection: Common ways in which infectious agents enter the body are through skin contact, inhalation of airborne microbes, ingestion of contaminated food or water, bites from vectors such as ticks or mosquitoes that carry and transmit organisms, sexual contact and transmission from mothers to their unborn children via the birth canal and placenta.
Prevention and Treatment… Immunization: Modern vaccines are among our most effective strategies to prevent disease. Many devastating diseases can now be prevented through appropriate immunization programs. In the United States, it is recommended that all children be vaccinated against diphtheria, pertussis (whooping cough), tetanus, polio, measles, rubella (German measles), mumps, Haemophilus influenza type B (a common cause of pneumonia and meningitis in infants), hepatitis B, varicella (chickenpox) and influenza.
Travelers to foreign countries may require vaccinations against yellow fever, cholera, typhoid fever or hepatitis A or B.
Public Health Measures: Measures that assure clean water supplies, adequate sewage treatment, and sanitary handling of food and milk also are important to control the spread of infectious disease.
Surveillance: The fight against infectious diseases requires worldwide surveillance by physicians, scientists and public health officials who gather information on communicable diseases, report new or resurgent outbreaks of disease, and develop standards and guidelines for treating and controlling disease.
Treatment: The development of antibiotics and other antimicrobials has played an important role in the fight against infectious diseases, but some microorganisms develop resistance to the drugs used against them. Modern physicians must prescribe antibiotics carefully, and research and development of new drugs is needed. The more widely antibiotics and antivirals are used, the more likely it is that antimicrobial-resistant strains of microorganisms will emerge.
INFECTIOUS DISEASE MEDICINE
Infectious diseases are the third leading cause of death in the United States, causing over 170,000 deaths annually, a figure that has nearly doubled since the early 1980’s. Globally, infectious diseases rank as the second leading cause of death, over half of which are under the age of 5. These existing, as well as new and emerging diseases, present a continuous threat to society.
Infectious diseases specialists have eradicated smallpox worldwide, led efforts to eliminate polio, and developed vaccines that have enabled dramatic reductions in diseases such as hepatitis B and varicella. Infectious disease specialists are on the leading edge of some of the hottest topics in medicine today-from treatment for HIV/AIDS patients, to the growing threat posed by antibiotic resistance, to concerns about the appropriate evaluation and response to threats of bioterrorism. They are also leading efforts to strengthen and improve U.S. and global preparedness against pandemic influenza.
Infectious disease physicians are highly trained specialists, having spent 4 years completing medical school training, 3 years completing an Internal Medicine Residency Training Program and a minimum of 2 years of sub-specialty fellowship training in Infectious Diseases Medicine.
Dr. Poursina is all of the above as well as being an expert in developing and employing strategies to prevent and treat infectious diseases in our patients. Prevention is accomplished through environmental approaches, prophylactic antibiotics, and most importantly, vaccines. Treatment involves the use of antimicrobial medications, medicine capable of destroying or slowing the growth of disease-causing organisms.
If you or your physician feels that you need to be evaluated and/or treated by an infectious diseases specialist, Infectious Disease Specialists of Piedmont is ready and willing to help. Call us today.